- Director, Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
BSc, Egypt; Master's and PhD, Harvard. Currently, Director, Library of Alexandria. Also chairs its affiliated research institutes and museums. Has held many international positions including: 1992-2000, Vice-President, World Bank. Has published widely. Recipient of numerous honours, including: Légion d'Honneur, France; Order of the Rising Sun, Japan; 29 honorary doctorates.