- Minister of Economy and Finance of France
1978, Master's in Economics, University of Paris X; Master's in Political Science and 1979, postgraduate diploma in Macroeconomics, Paris I; 1980, diploma, Institut d'Etudes Politiques, Paris; 1980, postgraduate diploma in Philosophy, University of Paris IV; 1982-84, ENA. 1984, Auditor, Cour des Comptes; 1988, Counsellor. 1988, Adviser for Budgetary, Accounting and Financial Affairs to the Minister of National Education, Youth and Sport; 1989, Special Adviser; 1990, Member, National Council and National Bureau, Socialist Party; 1990-92 and 1995-97, National Secretary responsible for policy research and development; 1992-94, National Treasurer, Socialist Party; 1990, Head, Public Sector Modernization and Finance Department, General Planning Commission; 1994, Member, Doubs General Council, Sochaux-Grand-Charmont; 1994-97, Member of the European Parliament; 1995, Municipal Councillor, Montbéliard; since 1997, Deputy of the National Assembly. Author of A la Recherche de la Gauche Perdue (1994) and L'Urgence, Plaidoyer pour une Autre Politique (1995). Co-Author of L'Heure des Choix, pour une Economie Politique (1991) and Quelle Economie pour Quel Emploi? (1995).