- Professor of Economics, Leiden University, Netherlands
Formerly: Crown-Member, Netherlands Social-Economic Council; Chairman, International Advisory Board, DaimlerChrysler; Adviser, Secretary-General, OECD; Honorary Secretary-General, Bilderberg Meetings; Member, Government's Council on Defence; H.M. the Queen's Informateur; President, International Institute of Public Finance; Member, Investment Committee, ABP Pension Fund; Non-Executive Director: ING; Stork; DaimlerChrysler; KPN; RHJI; TNT. Currently Non-Executive Director, PA Consulting Group. Member: Board of International Advisers, The Goldman Sachs Group; Board, De Nederlandse Opera; Het Muziektheater; Steering Committee, Bilderberg Meetings; Koç University, Istanbul; Lee Kuan Yew School for Public Policy, Singapore; Board of Trustees, Population Council, New York. Honorary President, IIPF. Knight in the Order of the Dutch Lion.