1983, LLB and 1986, LLM, Faculty of Laws, University College London. 1999-2004: Head, Economic and Social Affairs Department, Trades Union Congress; 2000-04, Member of the UK's Low Pay Commission; 2004-10, Associate Director, The Work Foundation; since 2005, Member of the Central Arbitration Committee (the UK's Industrial Court). Since 2010, Research Fellow, The Smith Institute. Interests: macro-economic policy, labour market policy, low pay and in-work poverty, employment relations. Former Member, Global Agenda Council on Growth, Employment and Social Protection, World Economic Forum.