Graduate, Ecole Polytechnique, Ecole des Mines, Institut d'Etudes Politiques, and Ecole Nationale de l'Administration; Doctorate in Economics. Professor, writer. Taught Economic Theory: Ecole Polytechnique; Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées; University of Paris-Dauphine. 1980, Founder, Action contre La Faim and Eurêka. 1981-91, Special Adviser to the President of the Republic; 1989, launched an international programme of action against the disastrous floods in Bangladesh. 1991-93, Founder and first President, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. CEO, A&A, an international consulting firm specializing in new technologies, Paris; concurrently, President, PlaNet Finance. Honorary Member, Council of State. Author of 55 books. Columnist, L'Express. Recipient of honours and awards.