BSc, Economics; PhD, Politics, London School of Economics. 1980-85, taught Politics and Political Sociology, London School of Economics and Political Science; Editor, Pakistan English daily, The News; Visiting Faculty Member, National Defence University, Islamabad; 1993-96 and 1999-2002, Ambassador of Pakistan to US; 2003-08, Ambassador of Pakistan to UK; 2008, Fellow, Kennedy School, Harvard University. 2009-10, Public Policy Scholar, Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington. Former Member, UN Secretary-General's Advisory Board on Disarmament Affairs. Adviser, Geo, Pakistan's largest media network; Member, Advisory Board, International Institute of Strategic Studies, London. Author: Pakistan's Encounter with Democracy; The External Challenge. Editor: Pakistan beyond the crisis state. Recipient of awards and honours, including: Honorary Doctorate, London Metropolitan University (2005); President's award of Hilal-e-Imtiaz, for public service in Pakistan; Honorary Fellowship, London School of Economics (2004).