Graduate, Erasmus University, Rotterdam; PhD in Economics, University of Michigan. Experience in the Middle East and North Africa. 1988-93, with GATT Secretariat, Geneva. 1994-2012, with World Bank: managed team on trade and international integration, Development Research Group; Sector Director, International Trade Department, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Vice-Presidency. Research Fellow, Centre for Economic Policy Research, London. Research includes functioning of multilateral trading system, international transactions in services, trade agreements.