Graduate, Geneva Institute of Social Studies (IES). 1987-88, social worker. 1987-89, Member of the Municipal Assembly of Vernier. 1988-2003, Secretary-General, UNIA (Union of Geneva Clerks) and FCTA (commerce, transport and food industry trade union), Geneva. 1995-97, President, Geneva Action Community of Trade Unions (CGAS). 1997-2003, Member of the Executive Board, Swiss Trade Union, Vice-President, CGAS, and Member of the Geneva Legislative Assembly (Grand Conseil). 2003, elected to the State Council of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, Switzerland; 2005 and 2009, re-elected; currently, President; since 2003, in charge of the Department of Education, Culture and Sport (DIP).