1980, MA in English Literature, Beijing Foreign Studies University; 1988, Hubert Humphrey Fellow, Economics Graduate Program, Boston University. Active in international economic affairs for at least two decades, worked on bilateral and multilateral economic and financial forums. 1980, Ministry of Finance (MoF): 1980-82, staff assistant; Executive Director's Office for China, World Bank. 1983-85, Section Chief, 1985-87, Deputy Director, World Bank Department. 1989-92, Alternate Executive Director, World Bank. 1993-95 Deputy Director-General; 1995, Director-General, World Bank Department, Ministry of Finance. 1995-98, Assistant Minister, 1998-2003, Vice-Minister, Ministry of Finance. Currently, Chairman of the Board of Supervisors, China Investment Corporation (CIC). Member, State Monetary Policy Committee and Anti-Terrorism Committee of the People's Republic of China. Writes extensively on economics and finance.