Master's and PhD in Economics, University of California, Los Angeles. Formerly: Professor of Economics, Faculté de Droit et des Sciences Politiques et Economiques de Tunis; visiting professor, various universities in Canada, US, Belgium and France; international consultant. 1988-90, Chairman, Tunis Stock Exchange. 1990-95, Minister of Economic Development and Minister of Planning and Regional Development of Tunisia; concurrently, Economics Expert for the EU and the League of Arab Nations. With World Bank: 1997, Senior Economic Adviser, Development Prospects, Development Economics; 1999-2010, Regional Chief Economist and Director, Social and Economic Development Group, Middle East and North Africa; 2010 - Jan. 2011, Senior Adviser to the World Bank Chief Economist. Jan. 2011 - July 2012, Governor of the Central Bank of Tunisia.