Master's in Economics, Delhi School of Economics. Formerly: taught economics, St Stephen's College, Delhi Univ.; Special Asst to Union Commerce Ministers; Undersecretary and Deputy Secretary, Trade Policy Div., Ministry of Commerce; 1981-85, Minister, Economics and Commercial, Indian Embassy, Tokyo; Industry Secretary and Finance Secretary, Government of Bihar; Chairman, Bihar State Electricity Board; 1990-91, Joint Secretary, Ministry of Home Affairs, India; 1991-93, Joint Secretary, then 1993-95, Additional Secretary, Dept of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance; 1995-96, Expenditure Secretary; 1996-98, Revenue Secretary, Ministry of Finance; 1998-2001, Secretary to, and 2001, OSD to Prime Minister of India; 2001-04, Member, Planning Commission, dealing with multilateral institutions. April 2008, elected Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha, or Upper House. Member-Convenor, Parliamentary Forum on Global Warming & Climate Change. Member: Parliamentary Standing Cttee on HRD; Parliamentary Cttee on MP Local Area Development Scheme; Parliamentary Consultative Cttee on Finance.