1982, graduate in Economics, Univ. of Konstanz. 1982-88, Research Assistant, Monetary Economics and 1987, PhD, Univ. of Siegen; 1989-92, Research Assistant, Dept of Economics and 1994, Habilitation in Economics, Univ. of Siegen; 1994-98, Prof. of Economic Theory, Rheinische Friedrich- Wilhelms Univ., Bonn; 1998-2001, Prof. of Applied Monetary Economics, Johann Wolfgang Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; 1998-2002, Director, Center for Financial Studies, Frankfurt; 2001-04, Prof. of Int'l Economics, Univ. of Cologne; 2002-04, Member, German Council of Economic Experts; 2004, became President, Central Bank of Germany; Member, Governing Council, ECB; 2012, became Chairman, UBS.