1987, BA (Hons), University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; 1992, Master's in Business, Columbia University. Formerly: Financial Analyst, Salomon Brothers; Associate, Corporate Finance Department, Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette. With Sanford C Bernstein & Company: 1994-99, Senior Equity Research Analyst; Director, Research; 1999-2001, Executive Vice-President, Alliance Capital Management, Bernstein's parent company; Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. Since 2002, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Smith Barney. 2004, Chief Financial Officer, Citigroup. Member, Management and Business Heads Committees and Business Practices Committee, Citigroup.