- A series of good harvests mitigated the immediate impact of COVID-19 on food security - but its long-term consequences could be major.
- It is critically important that stakeholders across all sectors come together to address the imminent threats to food security around the world.
- Here's a guide to those challenges - and how best to meet them.
As the impacts of COVID-19 have expanded from immediate healthcare needs to our societies and economies, the resiliency and inefficiencies of global, regional and local food systems have the potential to become another major consequence of the pandemic.
The fact that the crisis arrived on the back of a series of good harvests globally has meant that this effect is not as serious as it could have been, and as a result has been limited to more localised issues – such as a shortage of food staples in developed markets, farmers dumping large amounts of produce they have been unable to sell from milk to avocados, disruptions associated with meat processing plants, and localised increases in food pricing.
There is, however, no room for complacency. It is predicted that an additional 135 million people could face acute food insecurity by the end of the year. Frailties in the production and supply of food could be further exacerbated by the potential for weather-related shocks, locust infestations in a number of regions, millions of jobs being impacted across the agricultural value chain, resultant food price spikes and financial losses impacting on hundreds of thousands of small and medium-sized local organizations that are critical to the integrity of food supply chains across the world.
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Furthermore, the ongoing impact of COVID-19 on peoples' livelihoods across all sectors will have an increasingly debilitating effect on their ability to buy healthy and affordable food. This will be particularly felt in underserved communities, where households can spend up to 80% of their income on food, or where hundreds of millions are affected by the school closures that disrupt vital school feeding programmes, which can be a significant – and sometimes the only – source of nutrition for young children. In short, this means the reality of food and nutrition insecurity around the world could soon be on everyone’s plate.
It is critical, therefore, that the private sector, governments, international organizations and civil society come together to address the current and emerging health, economic, environmental and societal crises as they relate to the building of more resilient, healthy, sustainable and equitable food systems. In that respect, three sets of urgent actions are needed.
1. Enhance the resilience and health of existing food systems:
- Stabilize access to, affordability and pricing of food for the population, particularly for the most vulnerable with a specific focus on support for women and the young.
- Protect all consumers against lasting damage to their health by ensuring that immediate nutritional needs are met.
- Secure strategic food reserves at country and regional levels.
- Support open borders, green channels and regional food trade to facilitate supply and access to food for all, and enable longer-term investment into the sector.
- Protect the immediate viability of small and medium sized businesses throughout the food chain.
2. Enable recovery towards building up of healthy, sustainable, inclusive and efficient future food systems:
- Support the inclusion of strengthened food systems that are better placed to deliver healthy and more sustainably produced diets for all, as a critical pillar of national COVID-19 recovery plans and in planned stimulus packages.
- Ensure greater equity of access to healthy diets is embedded more firmly into food system strategies going forward.
- Improve the ongoing technical capacity of the relevant authorities to build resilience against interrelated future shocks to food systems, and address the cross-sector nature of improved food systems management.
- Support entrepreneurship throughout the food and agriculture value chain to advance economic transformation, growth and development amid the pandemic.
3. Promote enablers, including finance, data and digitalization, and public-private collaboration, as vital in unlocking resilience to and recovery from COVID-19's impacts on food systems:
- Unlock, at scale, finance and de-risking measures to support cash-flow constrained SMEs in the food value chain most impacted by COVID-19.
- Accelerate digital and data readiness through collaboration and by establishing national nerve centres/situation rooms to coordinate food-specific data flows that enable a more informed response to the pandemic.
- Support the call for enhanced connectivity for rural areas, interoperability across ICT providers, including unlocking rural ICT access funds, and facilitate the provision to farmers with recognized unique digital identities to support inclusion, access to trusted data flows and the building of efficient farmer databases as we emerge from the crisis.
- Promote cross-sector & cross-stakeholder collaboration to deliver resilient, better nourished, and more prosperous outcomes for all.
What is the World Economic Forum doing to help ensure global food security?
Two billion people in the world currently suffer from malnutrition and according to some estimates, we need 60% more food to feed the global population by 2050. Yet the agricultural sector is ill-equipped to meet this demand: 700 million of its workers currently live in poverty, and it is already responsible for 70% of the world’s water consumption and 30% of global greenhouse gas emissions.
New technologies could help our food systems become more sustainable and efficient, but unfortunately the agricultural sector has fallen behind other sectors in terms of technology adoption.
Launched in 2018, the Forum’s Innovation with a Purpose Platform is a large-scale partnership that facilitates the adoption of new technologies and other innovations to transform the way we produce, distribute and consume our food.
With research, increasing investments in new agriculture technologies and the integration of local and regional initiatives aimed at enhancing food security, the platform is working with over 50 partner institutions and 1,000 leaders around the world to leverage emerging technologies to make our food systems more sustainable, inclusive and efficient.
The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the fragility of our food systems, and the extent of our reliance on them to deliver the nutrition we need. With those fragilities now clearly on everyone’s plate, how we come together to build food systems that are inclusive, sustainable, healthy and resilient to a range of shocks is more important than ever. At the World Economic Forum, we are seeing a renewed commitment to multistakeholder action to solve this challenge – not just for the duration of the pandemic, but for the longer-term transition of food systems that is to come.