1988, Bachelor's in Economics, Harvard University; 1993, Master's in Economics and 1995, Doctorate in Economics, Oxford University. Thirteen years with Goldman Sachs in London, Tokyo, New York, Toronto. 2003-04, Deputy Governor, Bank of Canada. 2004-08, Senior Associate Deputy Minister of Finance. 2008-13, Governor of the Bank of Canada. Since July 2013, Governor of the Bank of England. Chairman, Financial Stability Board (FSB); Member: Board, Bank for International Settlements and Chairman; Group of Thirty; Board of Trustees, World Economic Forum.