Educated at Harvard University; PhD in Regional Economics and Development, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Formerly: 25-year career with the World Bank as Development Economist and latterly as Managing Director. 2003-06 and 2011-15, Minister of Finance of Nigeria; former Foreign Minister of Nigeria, the first woman to hold both positions. Currently, Chair of the Board, Gavi, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation. Since its creation in 2000, Gavi has immunised 580 million children globally and saved 7 million lives. Senior Adviser, Lazard. Author of several books, including Reforming the Unreformable: Lessons from Nigeria. Recipient of honours and awards, including: named as one of the 50 Greatest World Leaders, Fortune (2015); one of the Top 100 Most Powerful Women in the World, Forbes (consecutively for four years); one of the Top 100 Most Influential People, Time (2014); one of the Top 100 Women in the World, The Guardian (2011); honorary degrees, Yale University, University of Pennsylvania, Brown University.