Degrees, Institute of Political Studies, and Law School, Paris X University; postgraduate diploma in Labour Law, Master's in English, and diploma, Holton Arms School, Bethesda, US. Lectured at Paris X Law School. 1981-2005, with Baker & McKenzie: 1987, Partner, Paris; 1991-95, Managing Partner; 1995, Member, Global Executive Committee; 1999-2004, Chair, Global Executive Committee; 2004-05, Chairman, Global Policy Committee. 2005-07, Minister of Trade of France; May-June 2007, Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries of France; June 2007-June 2011, Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry of France, since July 2011, Managing Director, International Monetary Fund (IMF). Member, Foundation Board, World Economic Forum. Recipient, Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur.