1977, degree (Hons) in Business Economics, Bocconi University, Italy; 1980, MBA, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. Formerly: Senior Engagement Manager, McKinsey & Company; various positions with CIR, including Chief Executive Officer and Chief Operating Officer; Deputy Chairman, Credito Romagnolo; Chief Operating Officer, Arnoldo Mondadori Editore; Deputy Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Gruppo Espresso-La Repubblica; Managing Director, Olivetti. 1996-98, Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer, Banco Ambrosiano Veneto; 1998-2002, Chief Executive Officer and Managing Director, Poste Italiane; 2002-06, Chief Executive Officer, Banca Intesa; 2007-11, Chief Executive Officer, Banca Intesa Sanpaolo. 2011- 13, Minister of Economic Development, Infrastructure and Transport. 2015 President of Italia Unica. Recipient of honours and awards, including: honorary degree in international business, MIB School of Management, Trieste (2001); honorary degree in man agement engineering, Politecnico di Bari (2004); Cavaliere del Lavoro (2006).