Degree in Law, Turin University; PhD in Economics, Cambridge University. Formerly: Academic, Cambridge, Louvain la Neuve, Johns Hopkins and Turin University; Director and current Member of the Board, Eni Enrico Mattei Foundation; 1997-2001, member of boards, including Telecom Italia and Eni; 2001-04, Director-General, Italian Treasury; 2004-05, Minister of Economy and Finance Minister, with responsibilities including Member, European Council of Economy and Finance Ministers, G7 and G8, and Governor, IMF; Lead Author, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (winner of Nobel Peace Prize 2007). President, Assogestioni, an Italian fund managers' association. Director, Grosvenor Group. Author of academic books and over 70 economic research papers.