Studies in Medical Biology, Univ. of Utrecht; studies in Business Admin., Erasmus Univ. 1987- 98, with Gist-Brocades, incl.: Divisional Director, Marketing and Sales; Member, Exec. Committee. With DSM: 1998-99, Business Group Director, Food Specialities; 2000, Member, Managing Board of Directors; since 2007, Chief Exec. Officer and Chairman, Managing Board. Member of the Supervisory Board: De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch Central Bank); Member Supervisory Board (Non-Executive Director) Unilever N.V. and plc; Board Member, CEFIC (European Chemical Industry Council); Member, CEO Council, Chinese Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries.