Degree (Hons) in Law, Melbourne University; degree in Politics, Philosophy and Economics, University of Oxford. 1977, 1983, 1987, 1993, elected to Senate, State of Victoria; 1983, Queen's Counsel; 1983-84, Attorney-General; 1984-87, Minister for Resources and Energy; 1987-88, Minister for Transport and Communications; 1988-96, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade; 1987-93, Deputy Leader, then 1993-96, Senate Leader; 1989-91, helped develop UN peace plan for Cambodia; led government initiative to conclude Chemical Weapons Convention; 1999-2001, Co-Chair, International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. Member, Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission. Co-Chair, International Commission on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament. Author of articles on legal and constitutional reform, labour politics and foreign relations, including The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once and For All (2008). Recipient of Freedom from Fear Medal, Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute (2010).