BA, London Metropolitan University North; MA, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, specialization in development economics. February 2019, appointed Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme. 2015-19, Director-General of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 1987-2015, held various leadership roles at the World Bank and United Nations. 2011-15, Vice-President of the Middle East and North Africa Region at the World Bank; previous to that, Vice-President for Sustainable Development and Head of the CGIAR Fund Council. Throughout 15-year career at the World Bank, managerial roles focused on water, environment and sustainable development, with special emphasis on Africa and the Middle East. Previous to the World Bank, worked at the United Nations for 12 years, starting in the UN Sudano-Sahelian Office working on drought and desertification issues; then appointed UNDP’s Coordinator for Global Environment for the Arab Region, working on climate change, biodiversity and water issues.