BA (Hons) in History, Harvard University; MA in International History, London School of Economics; MPhil and DPhil in International Relations, Balliol College Oxford. Since 1993, Chief Executive, IISS. Special Adviser to the Chairman of Reliance Industries (Mumbai), Member of the Board of Directors, Abraaj Group (Dubai). Consults widely. Conceived and launched the IISS Shangri-La Dialogue in Singapore and the IISS Manama Dialogue in Bahrain. Author: Nato's Southern Allies, (1988); French Power in Africa, (1989); numerous chapters in books, articles in leading newspapers and magazines. Regular public speaker. Recipient of award: CMG (1999).