BA (Hons) in History, Harvard University; MA in International History, London School of Economics; MPhil and DPhil in International Relations, Balliol College Oxford. Since 1993, Chief Executive, IISS. Special Adviser to the Chairman of Reliance Industries (Mumbai); consults widely. Conceived and launched the IISS Shangri-La Dialogue in Singapore and the IISS Manama Dialogue in Bahrain. Author: Nato's Southern Allies, (1988); French Power in Africa, (1989); numerous chapters in books, articles in leading newspapers and magazines. Regular public speaker. Recipient of award: CMG (1999).