Graduate in Philosophy, Singapore and Canada. 1971-2004, with Singapore Foreign Ministry: 1993-98, Permanent Secretary; served twice as Singapore's Ambassador to the UN. Author: Can Asians Think?; Beyond the Age of Innocence: Rebuilding Trust between America and the World; The New Asian Hemisphere: The Irresistible Shift of Global Power to the East; The Great Convergence: Asia, the West and the Logic of One World; Can Singapore Survive? Recipient of awards: Public Administration Medal (Gold), Singapore Government (1998); Foreign Policy Association Medal (2004).