Degree in Civil Law. 1981-84, Attorney-General of Ireland, Member, Council of State; 1985-89, Commissioner, European Communities; 1989-93, Chairman, Allied Irish Banks; 1990-95, Chairman, European Institute of Public Administration; 1993-95, Director-General, GATT, WTO; 1997-2009, Chairman, BP; 2000-09, Chairman, Trilateral Commission. Chairman, London School of Economics and Political Science. Special Representative of Secretary-General of UN, Migration and Development. Member of the Supervisory Board, Allianz. Member, Foundation Board, World Economic Forum. Author, Premier Janvier 1993 - Ce Qui Va Changer en Europe (1989).