1951, BA, University of the Sacred Heart, Tokyo; 1953, MA in International Relations, Georgetown University; 1963, PhD in Political Science, University of California, Berkeley. 1965-76, Lecturer and Associate Professor, International Relations, International Christian University; 1976-79, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Permanent Mission of Japan to UN; 1990, Independent Expert, UN Commission on Human Rights Situation in Myanmar. Since 1980, Professor, Institute of International Relations, Sophia University, Tokyo; 1987-88, Director; 1989-91, Dean, Faculty of Foreign Studies. 1990-2000, UN High Commissioner for Refugees. 2001-03, Co-Chair, Commission on Human Security. 2001-04, Japanese Prime Minister's Special Representative for Afghanistan Assistance; 2003-12, President, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).