Studied at the London School of Economics and Cambridge University; MPA and conferred Lucius N Littauer Fellow, Harvard University. Formerly, 5 years as Minister for Education and 9 years (until 2015) as Minister for Finance. 2011-14, Chairman, IMFC, the key policy forum of the IMF. Chairman, G20 Eminent Persons Group on Global Financial Governance, established in 2017 to recommend reforms to the system of multilateral financial institutions; Chairman, Group of Thirty, an independent global council of leading economic and financial policy-makers. Chairman of the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), Singapore’s central bank and financial regulator. Member of the Board and Chair, Investment Strategies Committee, Government of Singapore Investment Corporation (GIC). Honorary Fellow, London School of Economics.