1993, degree in Physics, University of Latvia; 1995, degree in Economics, Riga University of Technology; 1995, Master's in Physics, University of Latvia. 1995-98, research assistant, Mainz University, Germany, Institute of Solid-State Physics, Latvia and University of Maryland (USA). 1998-2002, Senior Economist and Chief Economist, Bank of Latvia. 2004 and 2014, Member of the Saeima (Parliament) of Latvia. 2002-04, Minister of Finance of Latvia. Served three consecutive terms as Prime Minister of Latvia, becoming the longest serving elected head of government in Latvia's history. From 2004, Member of the European Parliament; Head of Latvian Delegation in the EPP Group. Currently, Vice-President of the European Commission, in charge of the Euro and Social Dialogue. Co-Author of How Latvia came through the financial crisis? (2011). Recipient, Order of the Three Stars, the highest State Decoration of the Republic of Latvia (2014).