PhD, Sorbonne. Journalist and politician. Ten years as Member, Luxembourg Parliament; 10 years as Member, European Parliament; 1999, European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Media and Sports; 2004, European Commissioner for Information Society and Media. Currently, since 2010, First Vice-President and European Commissioner for Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship. Launched Europe-wide "Citizens Dialogue" series, ahead of EU elections. Author of articles on the reform of European institutions, on the development of the EU into a federal political union, and on economic and financial governance. Recipient of numerous national and European awards and honorary degrees.