Full report
Published: 31 March 2021

Global Gender Gap Report 2021

References

Addati, L., U. Cattaneo, V. Esquivel and I. Valarino, Care Work and Care Jobs for the Future of Decent Work, ILO, 2018, www.ilo.org, http://www.ilo.org/global/ publications/books/WCMS_633135/lang-en/index.htm.

Alon, T., M. Doepke, J. Olmstead-Rumsey and M. Tertilt, “The Impact of COVID-19 on Gender Equality”, Covid Economics: Vetted and Real-Time Papers, issue 4, no. 4, 2020a, pp. 62–85.

————, This Time It’s Different: The Role of Women’s Employment in a Pandemic Recession, CEPR Discussion Paper 15149, Centre for Economic Policy Research, 2020b.

Averkamp, D., C. Bredemeier and F. Juessen, Decomposing Gender Wage Gaps: A Family Economics Perspective, IZA DP No. 13601, IZA Institute of Labor Economics, 2020.

Bian, L., S. Leslie and A. Cimpian, “Gender Stereotypes about Intellectual Ability Emerge Early and Influence Children’s Interests,” Science, vol. 355, no. 6323, 2017, pp. 389–391.

Cardador, M.T., “Promoted Up But Also Out? The Unintended Consequences of Increasing Women’s Representation in Managerial Roles in Engineering”, Organization Science, vol. 28, no. 4, 2017, pp. 597–617.

Chaaban, J. and W. Cunningham, Measuring the Economic Gain of Investing in Girls: The Girl Effect Dividend, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, World Bank, 2011. World Economic Forum, The Global Gender Gap Report 2020, 2020.

Chernoff, A. and C. Warman, COVID-19 and Implications for Automation, NBER Working Paper 27249, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2020.

Coale, A., “Excess Female Mortality and the Balance of the Sexes in the Population: An Estimate of the Number of Missing Females”, Population and Development Review, vol. 17, no. 3, 1991, pp. 517–523.

Collins, C., L.C. Landivar, L. Ruppanner and W.J. Scarborough, “COVID-19 and the Gender Gap in Work Hours” in Gender, Work, and Organization, vol. 28, no. S1, 2021, pp. 101–112.

Davis, S. and T. von Wachter, “Recessions and the Costs of Job Loss”, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, no. 2, 2011, pp. 1–72.

Dingel, J.I. and B. Neiman, How Many Jobs Can Be Done at Home?, NBER Working Paper No. 26948, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2020.

Ensmenger, N., The Computer Boys Take over: Computers, Programmers, and the Politics of Technical Expertise, MIT Press, 2010.

Fernandez-Mateo, I. and S. Kaplan, “Gender and Organization Science: Introduction to a Virtual Special Issue”, Organization Science, vol. 29, no. 6, 2018, pp. 1229– 1236.

Flabbi, L., et al., Do Female Executives Make a Difference? The Impact of Female Leadership on Gender Gaps and Firm Performance, IZA Discussion Paper No. 8602, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), 2014.

Ghani, E., M. Anandi and S. O’Connell, Can Political Empowerment Help Economic Empowerment? Women Leaders and Female Labor Force Participation in India, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 6675, World Bank, 2013.

Greig, F., R. Hausmann, L. D. Tyson and S. Zahidi, “The Gender Gap Index 2006: A New Framework for Measuring Equality” in The Global Gender Gap Report 2006, World Economic Forum, 2006.

Hausmann, R., Learning Without Theory, Project Syndicate, 2016.

Hunt, A. and E. Samman, Women’s Economic Empowerment: Navigating Enablers and Constraints (Research Report), Overseas Development Institute (ODI), 2016. Inter-Parliamentary Union, Women in Politics, 2021.

ILO (International Labour Organization), Building Back Better For Women: Women’s Dire Position In The Informal Economy, 2020.

————, The COVID-19 response: Getting gender equality right for a better future for women at work, 2020.

————, ILO Monitor: COVID-19 and the world of work. Seventh edition Updated estimates and analysis, 2021.

Inter-Parliamentary Union, Women in Politics, 2021.

ITUC (International Trade Union Confederation), Investing in the Care Economy: A Gender Analysis of Employment Stimulus in Seven OECD Countries, 2016.

Jütting, J., C. Morrison, J. Dayton-Johnson and D. Drechsler, Measuring Gender (In)equality: Introducing the Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base (GID) (Working Paper No. 247), OECD Development Centre, 2006. http://www.oecd.org/ dataoecd/17/49/36228820.pdf.

Klasen, S. and C. Wink, “Missing Women: Revisiting the Debate”, Feminist Economics, vol. 9, no. 2–3, 2003, pp. 263–299.

Konkel, A.E., “Gender Gap in Requests for Pay, Promotion Widens in Pandemic”, Indeed Hiring Lab, 2 March 2021, https://www. hiringlab.org/2021/03/02/gender-gapwidens- in-pandemic/.

Landivar, L., L .Ruppanner, W. Scarborough and C. Collins, “Early signs indicate that COVID-19 is exacerbating gender inequality in the labor force”, Socius Sociological Research for a Dynamic World, vol. 6, 2020, pp. 1–3.

Lopez-Claros, A. and S. Zahidi, Women’s Empowerment: Measuring the Global Gender Gap, World Economic Forum, 2005.

Misa, T.J., Gender Codes: Why Women Are Leaving Computing, John Wiley & Sons, 2011.

Mooi-Reci, I. and B. Risman, “The Gendered Impacts of COVID-19: Lessons and Reflections”, Gender & Society, March 2021, https://journals.sagepub.com/ doi/ 10.1177/08912432211001305 #articleCitationDownloadContainer.

Oxford Business Group, “Health & Education” in The Report: Egypt 2020, 2020, https:// oxfordbusinessgroup.com/egypt-2020.

Pissarides, C.A., “Loss of Skill During Unemployment and the Persistence of Employment Shocks”, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 107, no. 4, 1992, pp. 1371-1391. PwC, Women returners: The £1 billion career break penalty for professional women, 2016.

PwC, Women returners: the ? billioin career break penalty for professional women, 2016.

Sevilla, A. and S. Smith, Baby steps: The Gender Division of Childcare During the COVID-19 Pandemic, IZA DP No. 13302, IZA Institute of Labor Economics, 2020.

UNDP and UNWomen, COVID-19 Global Gender Response Tracker: Global Factsheet: Version 1 (September 28, 2020), 2020.

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), Human Development 2020: Technical Notes, 2020, http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2020_technical_notes.pdf.

UNICEF, Covid-19: Are Children Able to Continue Learning During School Closures?, 2020, https://data.unicef.org/resources/remotelearning- reachability-factsheet/.

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund), Harnessing the Power of Data for Girls: Taking Stock and Looking Ahead to 2030, 2016.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Global Assessment of Sex-Disaggregated ICT Employment Statistics: Data Availability and Challenges on Measurement and Compilation (UNCTAD Technical Notes on ICT for Development no. 4), 2016.

World Economic Forum, The Global Competitiveness Report Special Edition 2020, 2020.

————, The Global Gender Gap Report 2020, 2020.

————, The Future of Jobs Report 2020, 2020.

Yamaguchi, K., “Japan’s Gender Gap”, IMF Finance & Development, vol. 156, no. 1, 2019.

Subscribe for updates

A weekly update of what’s on the Global Agenda

© 2021 World Economic Forum

Privacy Policy & Terms of Service