Diagnostics are essential to the healthcare system. They are the cornerstone of precision medicine, enabling the customization of medical decisions and treatments. They predict susceptibility to disease, provide diagnoses and determine responsiveness to therapy. High-quality diagnostic technologies are available for major diseases and injuries in most developed countries but are not accessible, affordable or designed for application in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This report considers the barriers and enablers of the implementation, adoption and effectiveness of diagnostics. It offers possible solutions for application in LMICs, and in industrialized countries. The report aims to serve as an educational tool for health professionals, entrepreneurs, policy-makers and the general public on the ways in which diagnostics and their practices can be leveraged for better global human health.