1989-92, fellowship for PhD studies, German Academic Exchange. Formerly: Networks Support Engineer, Academy of Technology and Scientific Research; Assistant Researcher, Electronics Research Institute; Manager, Communications and Networking Department and Cabinet Information and Decision Support Centre; Secretary, Egyptian Internet Society; Professor, Computer Networks, Electronics Research Institute; Trustee, Internet Society, Virginia; 2000-04, Member of the Board, Telecom Egypt; five years as Senior Advisor to, then 2004-06, Minister of Communications and Information Technology; reappointed 2006, spearheaded national initiatives to spread use of ICT tools in Egypt, driving public private partnership initiatives to develop Egypt's ICT sector. Chairman: National Telecom Regulatory Authority; Information Technology Industry Development Agency; National Telecommunication Institute; Information Technology Institute. 2006, keynote speaker, Internet Governance Forum, Athens. Since 2004, Chairman, Executive Bureau, Arab Telecommunication and Information Council of Ministers, League of Arab States. 2006-08, Chairman, African Union Council of Ministers, CIT.