Studies, University of Economics, Bratislava, and Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Russia; 1990, LLM, Comenius University, Bratislava; 1990-91, studies, Université d'Eté de Perpignan, France, and Hoover Institution, Stanford University, USA; 2000, PhD in International and European Law, Comenius University, Bratislava. Started career with Czech and Slovak Ministry of Foreign Affairs; from 1993, continued in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic after separation. 1991-92, Embassy of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Harare, Zimbabwe. 1992, Embassy of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Ottawa, Canada. 1998, Slovak Mission to the EU, Brussels. 1999, designated Slovak Ambassador, Tel Aviv, Israel. 2004-09, Permanent Representative of the Slovak Republic to the EU. October 2009 - February 2010, Member of the European Commission, responsible for education, training, culture and youth. February 2010 - October 2014, Vice-President of the European Commission, responsible for Inter-Institutional Relations and Administration. Since November 2014, Vice-President of the European Commission, responsible for Energy Union. Author, Driving the EU forward (2014).