BA (Hons) in History, Harvard; BA and MA, Philosophy, Politics and Economics, Oxford; PhD, Political Science, Harvard. 1977-89, Dean, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard. Former Assistant Secretary of Defense for Policy and Plans, responsible for coordinating Department of Defense strategy towards states of former Soviet Union. 1985-87, Special Adviser to Secretary of Defense. Member, Defense Policy Board for Secretaries Weinberger, Carlucci, Cheney, Aspin, Perry and Cohen. Author: Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis (1971), updated and revised second edition (1999); Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe.