1970, graduate, Sapienza University, Rome; 1977, PhD in Economics, MIT. 1975-81, Professor of Economics, universities of Trento, Padua and Venice; 1981-91, Professor of Economics, University of Florence; 1984-90, Executive Director, World Bank; 1991-2001, Director-General, Italian Treasury; 1993, Chairman, Italian Committee for Privatizations; 1999-2001, Chairman, OECD's Working Party No 3; 2000-01, Chairman, European Economic and Financial Committee. Formerly, with Goldman Sachs International: Vice-Chairman; MD; 2002-05, Member, Management Committee. 2006-11, Governor, Banca d'Italia, and Chairman, Financial Stability Forum (later Financial Stability Board). Currently, with European Central Bank: President; Chair, Executive Board, Governing Council and General Council. Chair, European Systemic Risk Board. Member, Board of Directors, Bank for International Settlements.