Studies at Bocconi University and Yale University. Formerly, Professor of Economics and Rector, Bocconi University. With European Commission: 1995-99, Commissioner for Internal Market, Financial Services and Taxation; 1999-2004, Commissioner for Competition, including high profile cases such as GE and Honeywell, Microsoft, German Landesbanken; introduced modernization reforms of EU antitrust and merger control and led, with US authorities, creation of International Competition Network. Currently, also, Founder and Honorary President, Bruegel, European think tank. Former Member, Attali Committee on French economic growth, established by President Sarkozy. Member, Europe 2020-2030, European Council.