Graduate, Bocconi University; postgraduate studies, Yale University. Former Professor of Economics and Rector, Bocconi University. 1995-99, first European Commissioner responsible for Internal Market, Financial Services and Tax Policy; 1999-2004, European Commissioner for Competition. 2011, appointed Senator for life by President Giorgio Napolitano. 2011-12, Minister of Economy and Finance. 2011-13, Chairman, Council of Ministers. Since February 2014, Chair, High-Level Group on Own Resources (HLGOR), European Union. President, Bocconi University. Member: Académie des Sciences morales et politiques. Chair, Advisory Group, Transparency International EU. Member, Council on the Future of Europe, Berggruen Institute. Honorary President, Bruegel.