Degree (Hons) in Economics, University of Melbourne, Australia; Master's in Economic Development, Boston University, USA. 1987-95, Political Secretary to the Minister of Finance; 1991, Senator. 1991-94, Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Finance; 1994-95, Deputy Minister of Finance; since 1995, Member of Parliament, representing Jeli, Kelantan; 1995-99, Minister of Entrepreneur Development; 1998-99, Finance Minister II; 2000-01, Adviser to the Ministry of Finance; 2001-04, Executive Director, National Economic Action Council; 2004-06, Minister in the Prime Minister's Department; 2006-08, Minister of Higher Education; 2008-09, Minister of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry. Since April 2009, Minister of International Trade and Industry of Malaysia. Author of several books on Malaysian economic policies and politics. Recipient: Honorary Doctor of Commerce, University of Melbourne, Australia (1997); Honorary Degree of Law, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom (2005); Honorary Fellow, National Institute of Public Administration (INTAN) (1997).