1978, Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, University of Singapore; specialized in Dermatology; 1994, Diploma in Dermatology (Hons), University of Wales (UK); 1998, Member, Royal College of Physicians of Ireland. Since 2004, active in the Malaysian political arena. President, Malaysian Indian Congress. Since 2004, Member of Parliament. 2008-13, Minister of Human Resources; addressed issues of unemployment, the plight of estate workers, the challenges of unskilled workers and human resource capacity-building. May 2013, appointed as Minister of Health of Malaysia; has tirelessly criss-crossed the country and the world, to formulate a health transformation plan to address the country's challenges and needs. Recipient of honours: Honorary Fellowship, Faculty of Occupational Medicine of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland; Honorary Fellow, Academy of Medicine Malaysia; Honorary Fellow, Academy of Family Physician of Malaysia; Honorary Fellow, Society of Sports & Exercise Medicine Malaysia; Honorary Awards from His Majesty the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and the Governor of Malacca State; Honorary Fellow, International College of Dentists; Honorary Doctorate in Healthcare Management, Asia Metropolitan University.