Ensuring access to public transport in rural areas is an important issue. Yet rural mobility is in a critical state around the world, requiring urgent solutions. With this in mind, this paper explores mobility as a service (MaaS), which is expected to be at the forefront of a new generation of mobility services. It focuses on examples from Japan and examines the common challenges and success factors for MaaS, with the aim of supporting local government and related enterprises to transform mobility. It identifies how key success factors (KSFs) are implemented, offering a checklist for future MaaS providers to build a business model customized to their region, as well as helping those already operating MaaS businesses to identify areas for improvement.