• A study has shown that when people want help with a more personal or 'embarrassing' problem at a pharmacy, they would prefer to interact with a robot employee over than a human.
  • Embarrassment occurs when we are worried about what other people might think about us.
  • Since robots have the inability to judge our behavior, this can make it easier for us to talk to them.
  • However, as the number of robots in society increases, many people would still value help from a human pharmacist in some cases.

Many TV shows have a scene where a customer attempts to buy a potentially embarrassing product – a pornographic magazine perhaps or a diarrhoea treatment – only to have the assistant loudly check the price or ask questions for other people to hear.

Situations like this do happen in pharmacies and other shops. And they tend to make people squirm. But, what if they could interact with a robot instead of a human employee? In our recent research my colleagues and I found the use of robots, rather than people, as assistants may reduce people’s feelings of embarrassment. In one experiment, we asked 170 participants to imagine they were in a medical clinic to book a visit for a haemorrhoid problem. Half of them imagined speaking to a human receptionist and half to a robotic receptionist. We measured people’s level of embarrassment in that situation and we found that people felt less embarrassed when they had to provide information about their medical condition to a robot rather than a human receptionist.

Humans tend to feel embarrassed when we are concerned about what other people may think or feel about us. Other research in consumer behaviour field has shown that the mere presence of others, even when only imagined, is enough to elicit embarrassment.

Our research found that people don’t feel embarrassed with robots because they don’t believe that robots can form judgements or display emotions. In our second experiment, we asked participants to imagine they were in a pharmacy to collect an anti-fungal treatment. As in the previous study, we split the groups up, so half imagined speaking with a human pharmacist and the other half with a robot. We then measured not only how embarrassed they would have been, but also how much they thought that the robot had specific mental abilities such as emotions and judgements. The participants felt that as robots lack both of them they wouldn’t be able to hold opinions.

Recent versions of humanoid robots such as Sophia are capable of emulating a wide range of human expressions, and we even humanise them by giving them names. Despite this our research group found that participants felt robots did not judge their behaviour.

Take Curly, a robot designed to play curling, a sport where players slide stones on a sheet of ice toward a target area. When, last year, Curly won against the curling’s human elite team, it did not win on purpose. It just played the game it had been programmed to play, indifferent to whether it was playing it any better or worse than anyone else.

This inability to judge our behaviour is what makes robots the preferred option in embarrassing situations.

When interviewing people about embarrassing situations, we also found they preferred robots because you could not meet a robotic assistant on the street after an embarrassing purchase, and that people worry about these things.

When asking robots embarrassing questions, we also do not risk the uncomfortable small talk that we might have with humans.

Robots don’t judge

Taking humans out of a situation has been used to reduce embarrassment in the past. For example, consumers can purchase products such as condoms and tampons from vending machines, avoiding awkward interactions in stores. A recent survey discovered that consumers are willing to pay more for personal hygiene products online, just to avoid the embarrassment of buying in a store.

Robots might not gossip about us but they do collect more data than a human ever could – and they store it for longer. In the research participants did raise concerns about privacy and robots storing their data, but many felt they already handed over a lot of personal information every day via their phones and therefore didn’t worry about it too much.

AI, machine learning, technology

How is the World Economic Forum ensuring that artificial intelligence is developed to benefit all stakeholders?

Artificial intelligence (AI) is impacting all aspects of society — homes, businesses, schools and even public spaces. But as the technology rapidly advances, multistakeholder collaboration is required to optimize accountability, transparency, privacy and impartiality.

The World Economic Forum's Platform for Shaping the Future of Technology Governance: Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning is bringing together diverse perspectives to drive innovation and create trust.

  • One area of work that is well-positioned to take advantage of AI is Human Resources — including hiring, retaining talent, training, benefits and employee satisfaction. The Forum has created a toolkit Human-Centred Artificial Intelligence for Human Resources to promote positive and ethical human-centred use of AI for organizations, workers and society.
  • Children and young people today grow up in an increasingly digital age in which technology pervades every aspect of their lives. From robotic toys and social media to the classroom and home, AI is part of life. By developing AI standards for children, the Forum is working with a range of stakeholders to create actionable guidelines to educate, empower and protect children and youth in the age of AI.
  • The potential dangers of AI could also impact wider society. To mitigate the risks, the Forum is bringing together over 100 companies, governments, civil society organizations and academic institutions in the Global AI Action Alliance to accelerate the adoption of responsible AI in the global public interest.
  • AI is one of the most important technologies for business. To ensure C-suite executives understand its possibilities and risks, the Forum created the Empowering AI Leadership: AI C-Suite Toolkit, which provides practical tools to help them comprehend AI’s impact on their roles and make informed decisions on AI strategy, projects and implementations.
  • Shaping the way AI is integrated into procurement processes in the public sector will help define best practice which can be applied throughout the private sector. The Forum has created a set of recommendations designed to encourage wide adoption, which will evolve with insights from a range of trials.
  • The Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution Rwanda worked with the Ministry of Information, Communication Technology and Innovation to promote the adoption of new technologies in the country, driving innovation on data policy and AI – particularly in healthcare.

Contact us for more information on how to get involved.

The use of service robots is rising today and sales of robot technologies are projected to reach US$912 million by 2026. The pandemic has also accelerated the deployment of these technologies, and with them a significant loss of jobs around the world. Only in the last year, the number of robots adopted in hospital receptions, hotels, airports and restaurants increased considerably.

a chart showing where AI is growing
Millions of jobs are being automated across different industries.
Image: Accenture Digital Energy Trends

Although many of us worry about losing our jobs to robots, and millions of jobs are being automated, in cases like this it turns out we may prefer to have robots do certain parts of the role of sales assistants. But that’s not to say we would like all parts of the job to be performed by a machine, many people would undoubtedly miss the one-to-one contact and warmth that a human pharmacist can offer if they popped in for advice.