Energy Transition

These 3 charts show energy prices in the EU

View of electricity pylons.

The Netherlands, Lithuania, Romania, and Latvia experienced the steepest electricity price hikes. Image: Unsplash/fresonneveld

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SDG 07: Affordable and Clean Energy

This article is part of: Centre for Energy and Materials
  • Energy prices in Europe are starting to stabilize but remain high with big price discrepancies between countries, Eurostat finds.
  • The Netherlands saw the biggest jump in household electricity bills of 953%, while gas bills in Latvia rose 139%.
  • But European countries are diversifying their energy mix and are top 10 performers in the World Economic Forum’s 2023 Energy Transition Index.

Electricity and gas price rises in Europe are slowing down, new data shows.

Charts from the European Union (EU), which has 27 member countries, show steep rises in energy prices since 2021 starting to flatten in the first six months of 2023.

A report from Eurostat, the statistical office of the EU, says electricity and gas prices are stabilizing. This follows a “significant increase” in energy prices that started before Russia invaded Ukraine, and then “skyrocketed” in the second half of 2022.

Energy prices in Europe are still high

While this is good news, electricity and gas prices in the EU are still higher than they were in 2022.

Average household electricity prices in the first half of 2023 were €28.9 per 100 kilowatt-hour (kWh) – up from €25.3 per 100kWh for the same period in 2022.

Average gas prices also rose to €11.9 per 100kWh from €8.6 per 100kWh in 2022.

“These prices are the highest recorded by Eurostat,” the statistical agency notes.

Graphs illustrating the trends in household consumers' electricity and gas prices in the EU from 2008-2023.
Gas and electricity prices rose steeply in the EU in 2022 and are now levelling off. Image: Eurostat

Electricity prices rose in 22 EU countries

In 22 EU countries, household electricity prices rose in the first half of 2023 compared to the same time last year. The Netherlands saw the biggest increase, with household electricity bills jumping 953%. Factors fuelling this include the discontinuation of tax relief measures from 2022 and a doubling of energy taxes on electricity.

A price cap in the Netherlands this year will “significantly” lower prices, Eurostat adds.

Lithuania, Romania and Latvia also saw big electricity price jumps of 88%, 77% and 74%, respectively. Spain and Denmark saw the biggest electricity price falls, of 41% and 16%.

Map illustrating the change in electricity prices for household consumers.
The Netherlands, Lithuania, Romania and Latvia saw the highest electricity price rises in electricity prices. Image: Eurostat

Gas prices more than doubled in Latvia, Romania and Austria

Gas prices also rose in 20 out of the 24 EU members that report gas prices to Eurostat.

Latvia and Romania saw the highest jumps in gas prices in the first half of 2023 – of 139% and 134%, respectively.


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For Austria, the Netherlands and Ireland, they rose by 103%, 99% and 73%.

Gas prices fell marginally in Estonia, Croatia and Italy and were unchanged in Lithuania.

Map illustrating the change in natural gas prices for households consumers.
Gas prices rose in 20 EU member countries. Image: Eurostat

European countries are reducing their reliance on fossil fuels

European countries perform strongly in the World Economic Forum’s Energy Transition Index 2023, which ranks 120 countries on their current energy system performance and on the readiness of their enabling environment for an effective energy transition.

The top 10 countries in the index, which features in the Fostering Effective Energy Transition 2023 report, are all from Western and Northern Europe, led by Sweden, Denmark and Norway.

Top performing countries in the Energy Transition Index 2023 are all taking similar action, the Forum says.

This includes diversifying their energy mix, reducing energy subsidies, cutting emissions from their energy sector and introducing more clean energy into the fuel mix.

The report’s authors remind that a “strong and supportive regulatory environment” is also an important factor in driving progress on energy transition and reducing reliance on fossil fuels.

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