• Over 50% of Mexico's population live in areas where water is scarce.
  • Mexico City is among the three states most at risk.
  • In some municipalities in Mexico City, women can spend almost an entire working week on water-related activities.
  • Evidence suggests that nature-based solutions, when designed and implemented in an inclusive way, could help make water more accessible.
  • A program in Mexico City is strengthening water resilience by decreasing the social vulnerability of women through rainwater harvesting systems.
  • The project has reduced the time spent by women ensuring adequate water supply for their households by 20%-30%.

Marginalized groups — such as minorities, rural communities and women — are disproportionately affected by water security issues, and women often play a key role in collecting, storing, distributing and managing water. In fact, the majority of water carriers in low- and middle-income countries are women, with a particular burden falling on girls.

In some alcaldías (municipalities) in Mexico City — which is currently in the throes of a serious drought — women can spend almost an entire working week (4.4 working days) on water-related activities. When homes do not have water tanks, women are usually responsible for obtaining water, storing it, and ensuring it is appropriately used and reused. In a country where over 50% of the population lives in areas where water is scarce, Mexico City is among the three states most at risk.

Growing evidence suggests that nature-based solutions, when designed and implemented in a participatory and inclusive way, could help make water access more equitable, and even favor the most disadvantaged and vulnerable. But unfortunately, minority groups are too often left out of planning and design processes.

One program in Mexico City seeks to strengthen water resilience by decreasing the social vulnerability of women through rainwater harvesting systems, an example of green-gray infrastructure. The program could have important lessons for other cities and countries around the world.

The impact of water supply on the gender gap

Given the disproportionate role women already bear from housework and childcare, the addition of water management in places of low water access results in unfair sacrifices to their own personal, professional and educational development. The time women invest in unpaid work in the home is multiplied when water does not arrive in the necessary quality and quantity — either because of insufficient supply or inadequate infrastructure.

Gender inequity in managing water is not typically considered in decision-making or developing public policies. This is in part because women are underrepresented in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector, occupying only 17% of the workforce in this sector in low- and middle-income countries.

This situation could be remedied if water scarcity were less frequent and severe, if water harvesting and management were more equitable, and if the development of water projects ensured the full participation of women.

a picture of a woman using water resources
Karina Sagaón García, a resident of the Campestre Potrero neighborhood in the municipality of Iztapalapa, is a participant in Mexico City's Rain Harvest program. The program aims to improve water security and reduce burdens on women.

Green infrastructure can help reduce the gender gap

Green infrastructure includes measures to protect, restore or sustainably manage natural ecosystems to address societal challenges. It’s a solution that can strengthen urban water resilience by mitigating the effects of climate change — such as floods and heat waves, and the risks of water scarcity. Green infrastructure like restored forests or rainwater harvesting systems can complement conventional, built infrastructure like dams and water treatment plants, providing it with flexibility and adaptability, extending its lifespan, reducing maintenance costs, and even providing other co-benefits.

For example, the city of Philadelphia established a plan in 2011 to reduce the runoff that enters its combined sewer system and overflows into water bodies. To date, the city has implemented more than 2,800 green infrastructure interventions like rain gardens, green roofs and catchment cisterns that retain water, promote infiltration and reduce runoff. The project has prevented around 10.2 million cubic meters of rainwater from flowing into rivers and streams.

In addition to preventing contamination of the city’s water, green infrastructure improves the health of surrounding ecosystems and increases water security for the city and its residents.

a picture of the water programme in action
Staff from the Secretariat of the Environment of Mexico City (SEDEMA) register people interested in enrolling in the state’s Rain Harvest program in March 2021. The program aims to boost water security in drought-prone Mexico City while improving equity.

The case of Mexico City

Currently, 85% of the water in Mexico City comes from compromised sources. The availability of groundwater in the Cuenca del Valle de México (Valley of Mexico’s Basin) has decreased 55% in the last 10 years due to overexploitation, while the Cuenca del Cutzamala (Cutzamala Basin) is at 50% of its storage, mainly due to prolonged drought.

an infographic showing key stats on water sources in mexico city
Mexico City has five sources of water supply.
Image: World Bank

The scarcity of water in Mexico City most affects communities with the highest degree of marginalization. For example, Iztapalapa, the most populous area in the city, has a water supply deficit of 35%. This results in women investing between one and four hours a week hauling water to their homes.

To help mitigate this problem, in 2019 the government of Mexico City implemented the Rain Harvest program for homes in areas with the greatest water shortages. The program started in Iztapalapa and Xochimilco, and, due to its success, has since been expanded to another six areas.

The program helps install rainwater harvesting systems, which capture the rain that falls on roofs of houses. Water is stored in a cistern, which can then be used for domestic purposes. It can also be used as drinking water if given additional treatment. These systems can provide a family with water for between five to eight months of the year.

By prioritizing households headed by women, single mothers, indigenous people, older adults and people with disabilities, the program aims to improve equity across the board. To date, more than 13,000 female heads of household have benefited — comprising around 65% of installed rainwater harvesting systems.

an infographic showing key stats on water sources in mexico city
The water harvest programme is advancing gender equality.
Image: World Bank

Additionally, the training process for the operation and maintenance of the systems promotes the equal distribution of tasks between men and women. According to the Secretariat of the Environment of Mexico City’s forthcoming Climate change and care work report, the focus on gender equality in training increased the number of homes with equitable distribution of water-related tasks from 34% to 55%.

The project has also reduced the time residents spend ensuring adequate water supply for their households by 20% -- 30% in households where women have sole responsibility for water supplies.

water, health, environment

What is the Forum doing to address the global water challenge?

Water security – both sustainable supply and clean quality – is a critical aspect in ensuring healthy communities. Yet, our world’s water resources are being compromised.

Today, 80% of our wastewater flows untreated back into the environment, while 780 million people still do not have access to an improved water source. By 2030, we may face a 40% global gap between water supply and demand.

The World Economic Forum’s Water Possible Platform is supporting innovative ideas to address the global water challenge.

The Forum supports innovative multi-stakeholder partnerships including the 2030 Water Resources Group, which helps close the gap between global water demand and supply by 2030 and has since helped facilitate $1Billion of investments into water.

Other emerging partnerships include the 50L Home Coalition, which aims to solve the urban water crisis, tackling both water security and climate change; and the Mobilizing Hand Hygiene for All Initiative, formed in response to close the 40% gap of the global population not having access to handwashing services during COVID-19.

Want to join our mission to address the global water challenge? Read more in our impact story.

Towards equitable water resilience

The challenges associated with water represent some of the most important issues we face as a society. Because responsibility for household water management and use often lies with women, solutions that seek to strengthen community water resilience must incorporate an equitable gender perspective.

Green infrastructure projects such as Mexico City’s initiative have the potential to increase resilience and serve as powerful development tools to address climate change. However, to take full advantage of their potential, cities must ensure inclusive participation in the planning, design and implementation of green infrastructure projects. When done well, communities and city residents can look forward to reduced vulnerability to climate change and a higher quality of life.

Cities4Forests is an initiative focused on helping cities better conserve, manage and restore forests. Mexico City, Philadelphia, Semarang and Kochi are participating members.