1965, BSc in Business Administration, Drexel Institute of Technology, Philadelphia; 1967, MA and 1972, PhD in Economics, University of Pennsylvania. 1968-73, Economist, International Monetary Fund (IMF); 1973-75, Chargé de Mission, Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO), Paris. 1975-83, Special Adviser to the Governor and Director of Research. 1984, Director, African Department, IMF; 1987, simultaneously, Counsellor to the Managing Director. 1988, Governor, BCEAO. 1990, Chairman, Interministerial Committee for Coordination of the Stabilization and Economic Recovery Programme, Côte d'Ivoire, Abidjan. 1990-93, Prime Minister, Côte d'Ivoire. Since 1994, current position. Recipient of honours. Author of numerous publications dealing with political, economic and social issues.