Master's in Commercial Engineering, Institut Commercial de Nancy; training in international trade, Institut de Commerce International de Paris; degrees in International Business. 1970-73, Deputy Director of Interventions and External Economic Relations, Ministry of Economy and Finance; 1973-74, position in analysis and fiscal policies and Special Appointee, International Monetary Fund (IMF); 1974-86, Head, Studies Department, Abidjan bureau, then Deputy Director to the National Director, Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO). Former Executive Director, National Social Security Fund of Côte d'Ivoire (CNPS); 1989-90, Central Director for Heritage and Informatics, BCEAO, Dakar; concurrently, Minister of Economy and Finance of Côte d'Ivoire. 1990-93, Minister Delegate (Prime Minister's Office) with responsibility for Economy, Finance, Budget, Planning, Commerce and Industry; 1993-99, Prime Minister, Head of Government. 2011, Minister of State, Minister of Foreign Affairs. Since 2012, Prime Minister of Côte d'Ivoire.