1989-93, Director, Policy Planning, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, France; Ambassador to Western European Union; Chairman, French Institute of Higher Defence Studies. 2000-08, Undersecretary-General, United Nations: longest tenure as head; led biggest expansion of peacekeeping. 2012, Deputy Joint Special Envoy to Syria. Former Director, Center for International Conflict Resolution, Columbia University. 2014-2017, President and Chief Executive Officer, International Crisis Group. Since January 2018, Senior Adviser, Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, Geneva. Member of the Board, Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Mediation, United Nations, New York. Distinguished Fellow, Brookings Institution. Member, European Council on Foreign Relations. Author: End of the Nation State (1993); The Fog of Peace (2015). Recipient: Officier de la Légion d'Honneur; Commander's Cross, German Order of Merit.