Studied at the Universities of Manchester, York and Oxford. Held research appointments, Nuffield College Oxford, IISS and the Royal Institute of International Affairs. Since 1982, Professor of War Studies, King's College, London. Head, School of Social Sciences and Public Policy, King's College. Has written extensively on nuclear strategy and the Cold War. Regular commentator on contemporary security issues. Most recent books include and Adelphi paper on the revolution in strategic affairs, an edited book on strategic coercion, a collection of essays on British defence policy and Kennedy's Wars that covers the major crises of the early 1960s over Berlin, Cuba and Vietnam. Fellow, British Academy. 1997, appointed Official Historian of the Falklands Campaign. Recipient of honours and awards, including: CBE (1996); awarded a knighthood (KCMG) (2003). Interests: the role of armed force in contemporary international affairs; contemporary history, including the Cold War and nuclear strategy; strategic theory.