PhD in Economics, University of Paris-Dauphine. 1991-92, with the French Ministry of Economy and Finance. 1992-96, Lecturer, University of Cergy-Pontoise; 1997-98, Professor, University of Lille 2; 1998-2000, Deputy Director, CEPII, the leading French research institute in international economics; 2001-04, Professor, University of Paris X-Nanterre; 2004, returned to the CEPII as Deputy Director; since 2006, Director. Concurrently, Professor, University of Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne. Member: Council of Economic Advisers, France; Commission Economique de la Nation; Cercle des Economistes. Research interests focus on the international monetary system and European macroeconomic policy.