1961, Bachelor's and 1964, Master's in Agriculture Economics, Gajah Mada University, Yogyakarta; 1983, Master's in Rural Sociology, Bogor Agricultural University, West Java. Over 40 years' experience in community self-reliant development initiatives, cooperatives, civil society development, microfinance development. Founder; national NGOs; international network. Active in national and international seminars and conferences. Author of over 250 articles on social development issues for seminars, training programmes and books.