MD, Univ. of Bern, Switzerland; exec. training, Harvard Business School, US. Held medical positions, Switzerland. 1988-92, with Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, US. Former CEO, Sandoz Pharma; Member of Sandoz Group Exec. Cttee. After merger that created Novartis in 1996, CEO and Exec. Member of Board of Directors. 1999-2010, Chairman of the Board and CEO. Since 2010, Chairman, Novartis. Member: Board of Directors, US-based PepsiCo and American Express Co.; Int'l Board of Governors, Peres Center for Peace, Israel; Int'l Business Leaders Advisory Council for Mayor of Shanghai; American Academy of Arts & Sciences; Board of Trustees, Carnegie Endowment for Int'l Peace.